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Assignment 1: Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

2 Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production The gastric parietal cells are found in the walls of the stomach and form the site where gastric acid is produced.3 The cells have the secretory canaliculus which releases gastric acid into the gastric lumen. 4 Gastric acid production occurs as a response to the hormonal, neurocrine and paracrine messengers which stimulate the series of reactions to produce the acid. Acid production takes place in three phase’s namely cephalic, gastric phase and intestinal phase. 3 Chemo transmitters are associated with the stimulation, production, and regulation of gastric acid. The chemo-transmitters are typically released into the gastric mucosa through different pathways that simulate the stimulatory and inhibitory mechanism (Borrelli, 2011).

The production, defense and healing mechanism against the harmful effects of gastric acid are regulated by an autocrine, neutral and paracrine control pathways. Gastric acid may be associated with digestive disorders such as GERD, PUD, and gastritis although it is equally important in the digestion of calcium, proteins and vitamin B12 as well as absorption of iron into the body.

Gastrointestinal reflux disorder (GERD) is the digestive condition that occurs due to acid reflux on the walls of the stomach. The excessive production of gastric acid leads to the overflow of the acid through the upper esophageal sphincter and causes a burning sensation on the esophageal walls. Peptic ulcer disease is more similar to GERD and involves acid action on the walls of the stomach leading to sores or wounds. Gastritis, on the other hand, is an inflammation of the intestinal walls due to the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin (Huether & McCance, 2012).

Patient Factors Affecting Digestive Acid Disorders: 5 Behavior The common risk factors for developing gastrointestinal acid disorders are the lifestyle behaviors such as drug use, poor diet, and poor feeding habits. A person who depends more on junk foods is more likely to accumulate more fat in their bodies which triggers conditions such as gastritis. 5 Foods such as peppermint, chocolate, coffee, and alcohol are the common causes of esophageal reflux. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin are triggers of gastritis. Smoking, drinking and substance abuse are all predisposing factors for peptic ulcers and gastritis (Camilleri, 2012).

Diagnosis and Treatment There are common symptoms of the digestive disorders that differentiate them and make them easy to diagnose. For instance, reflux disease comes with a burning sensation in the throat followed by a bitter taste in the mouth. The irritating feeling usually increases when one assumes a lying position. Patients with GERD are usually enrolled on a dietary change to control the recurrence. GERD, Gastritis, and PUD are diagnosed by an analysis of the patient’s dietary practices, the frequency of abdominal pains and stress levels (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012c). 5 The treatment of the conditions takes various forms such as lifestyle change, dietary changes and behavior change such as reduction in the levels of alcohol consumption, and avoiding the use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients may also be advised to avoid the consumption of spicy foods (National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2012).

Conclusion The discussion shows that gastric acid disorders mainly affects individuals who practice poor feeding habits, as well as alcohol consumers, and substance abusers. The best way to effectively manage gastric acid disorders is to practice a healthy diet and engage in a healthy lifestyle.

2 The Mind Map for Gastritis (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012c)-People who consume excess alcohol -Use of NSAIDS -Gastric bleeding -Vomiting and epigastric pain –

Epidemiology Clinical presentation


2 Pathophysiology Diagnosis Gastritis

-Inflammation of gastric mucosa -injury to the inner stomach lining –

-Endoscopy -Blood test -Fecal occult test


2 -Use of antacids to neutralize the gastric contents -Use of histamine 2 blockers to regulate acid production

5 References Borrelli, F. (2011). 2 Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor and Gastric Acid Secretion.  Dig Dis Sci, 52(11), 3102-3103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9507-4 Camilleri, M. (2012). Pharmacology of the new treatments for lower gastrointestinal motility disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 91(1), 44-59.

Huether, S. 2 E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). 2 Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

2 Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012c). 2 The gastrointestinal system. Baltimore, MD: Author.

5 National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. (2012). 5 Retrieved fromhttp://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/index.aspx


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